7. Control system of the vpryskovy engine

Scheme of an arrangement of elements of feed and control systems of the engine

1 – ignition relay;
2 – rechargeable battery;
3 – ignition switch;
4 converter;
5 – sensor of concentration of oxygen;
6 – nozzle;
7 – fuel stage;
8 – fuel pressure regulator;
9 – idling regulator;
10 – air filter;
11 – diagnostic socket;
12 – sensor of a mass consumption of air;
13 – tachometer;
14 – sensor of provision of a butterfly valve;
15 – lamp of control of work of a control system of the engine;
16 – throttle knot;
17 – control unit of an immobilizer (FPÖ);
18 – ignition module;

19 – sensor of temperature of cooling liquid;
20 – controller;
21 – spark plug;
22 – detonation sensor;
23 – fuel filter;
24 – relay of turning on of fans;
25 – cooling system electric fans;
26 – relay of inclusion of an electrogasoline pump;
27 – fuel tank;
28 – an electrogasoline pump with the sensor of the index of level of fuel;
29 – separator of vapors of gasoline;
30 – gravitational valve;
31 – safety valve;
32 – speed sensor;
33 – sensor of provision of a bent shaft;
34 – double-thread valve;
35 – adsorber.

Arrangement of elements of feed and control systems of the engine

1 – sensor of temperature of cooling liquid;
2 – idling regulator;
3 – sensor of provision of a butterfly valve;
4 – throttle knot;
5 – a fuel stage with nozzles and the regulator of pressure of fuel;
6 – the detonation sensor (it is located on the block of cylinders under a final collector – on a photo it is not visible);
7 – receiver;
8 – sensor of a mass consumption of air;

9 - air filter;
10 – the sensor of concentration of oxygen (it is located on a reception pipe – on a photo it is not visible);
11 – the speed sensor (it is located on the transfer case – on a photo it is not visible);
12 – the controller, the diagnostic socket and safety locks of system of injection of fuel (are located in interior of the car – on a photo are not visible);
13 – fuel filter;
14 – ignition module;
15 – adsorber of system of catching of vapors of fuel;
16 – sensor of provision of a bent shaft.

The VAZ-21214 engine is equipped with system of the distributed fuel injection (on each cylinder a separate nozzle) with electronic control.

At service and repair of a control system of the engine always disconnect ignition. When carrying out welding works disconnect the controller from a plait of wires. The controller contains electronic components which can be damaged by static electricity therefore do not touch with hands its conclusions. Before drying of the car in the drying camera (after painting) remove the controller. On the working engine do not disconnect and do not correct electric sockets (including accumulator plugs). Do not start the engine if plugs of the accumulator and "weight" on the engine and a body are not tightened or polluted.

The controller of system of injection (control unit) represents the minicomputer of a special purpose. It contains three types of memory – the operational memory device (OMD), the programmable read-only memory (PROM) and the electrically programmable memory device (EPMD).

The RAM is used by the computer for storage of the current information on operation of the engine and its processing. Also in the RAM codes of the arising malfunctions register. This memory is volatile, i.e. at power off its contents are erased.

PPZU contains actually the program (algorithm) of operation of the computer and calibration these (settings). Thus, PPZU determines the most important parameters of operation of the engine: character of curves of the moment and power, fuel consumption, etc. PPZU is non-volatile, i.e. its contents do not change at power off. PPZU is established in the socket on a payment of the controller and can be replaced separately (at failure of the controller serviceable PPZU can be rearranged on the new controller). In EPZU immobilizer codes when "training" keys register (see the service book of the car). This memory is also non-volatile.
The controller is located in salon, on the side panel in a zone of legs of the driver.

Sensors of system of injection issue to the controller information on parameters of operation of the engine (except the car speed sensor) on the basis of which he counts the moment, duration and an order of opening of nozzles, the moment and an order of sparking. At failure of separate sensors the controller passes to roundabout algorithms of work; at the same time some parameters of the engine (power, acceleration performance, profitability) can worsen, but the movement with such malfunctions is possible. The only exception is the sensor of provision of a bent shaft, at its malfunction the engine cannot work. Also the engine will not work at simultaneous failure of several sensors. Sensors are not maintainable, at failure replace them.

The sensor of provision of a bent shaft is installed in a camshaft drive cover arm opening. It issues to the controller information on angular situation and frequency of rotation of a bent shaft. The sensor represents the inductance coil; it reacts to passing of teeths of the setting disk near the sensor core. Two next teeth on a disk are cut off, forming a hollow. At its passing the sensor generates a so-called "basic" impulse of synchronization at each turn of a bent shaft. An adjusting gap between the core and teeths – 1,0±0,2 mm.

The sensor of temperature of cooling liquid is screwed in a final branch pipe on a head of cylinders. It represents the thermoresistor, at a temperature of -40 °C its resistance has to make 100 kOhm, at 100 °C – 177 Ohms. The controller gives on the sensor the stabilized voltage of 5 V via the resistor and on power failure counts composition of mix. At a sensor exit out of operation the controller transfers cooling system electric fans to a constant operating mode.

The Sensor of Provision of a Butterfly Valve (SPBV) is established on an axis of a butterfly valve and represents a potentiometer. On one end of its winding the stabilized voltage of 5 V moves, and another is connected to "weight". From the third conclusion of a potentiometer (slider) the signal for the controller is removed. For check of the sensor include ignition and, without switching-off the socket (wires can be punctured with the thin needles connected to voltmeter conclusions), measure tension between "weight" and the toddler's conclusion – it has to be no more than 0,7 V. Povorachivaya a hand the plastic sector, completely open a butterfly valve and again measure tension – it has to be more than 4 V. Vyklyuchite ignition, disconnect the socket, connect an ohmmeter between a conclusion of the toddler and any of two remained. Slowly turn the sector a hand, monitoring indications of an arrow. In all range of the working course of jumps should not be. At failure of DPDZ of its function undertakes the sensor of a mass consumption of air. At the same time turns of idling do not fall lower than 1200 min.-1.

The sensor of a mass consumption of air is located between the air filter and an inlet hose. It consists of two sensors (working and control) and the heating resistor. The passing air cools one of sensors, and the electronic module will transform a difference of temperatures of sensors to an output signal for the controller. At failure of the sensor of a mass consumption of air of its function undertakes DPDZ.

The sensor of a detonation is fixed by a bolt in the top part of the block of cylinders on the right side. Operation of the sensor is based on a pyezoeffekta: at compression of a piezoelectric plate on its ends there is a potential difference. At a detonation in the sensor there are tension impulses on which the controller regulates an ignition advancing. For the correct operation of the sensor the bolt of fastening has to be tightened by the recommended moment.

The sensor of concentration of oxygen (the oxygen sensor, lambda probe) is installed in a reception pipe of system of release (see System of production of the fulfilled gases). The oxygen which is contained in the fulfilled gases creates the potential difference at the sensor exit changing approximately from 0,1 (it is a lot of oxygen – poor mix) to 0,9 B (not enough oxygen – rich mix). On a signal from the oxygen sensor the controller corrects fuel supply by nozzles in cylinders, so that the composition of the fulfilled gases was optimum for effective work of converter (tension of the oxygen sensor about 0,5 In). For normal work the sensor of oxygen has to have temperature not below 360 °C therefore for bystry warming up after start of the engine the heating element is built in the sensor.

The controller constantly gives the stabilized basic tension of 0,45±0,10 Century in an oxygen sensor chain. Until the sensor is heated-up, basic tension remains invariable. At the same time the controller operates system of injection, disregarding tension on the sensor. As soon as the sensor gets warm, it begins to change basic tension. Then the controller turns off heating of the sensor and begins to consider an oxygen sensor signal.

The sensor of speed of the car is installed in the transfer case near the speedometer drive. The principle of its action is based on Hall's effect. The sensor gives on the controller rectangular impulses of tension (the lower level – no more than 1 V, top – not less than 5 V) with a frequency proportional to the speed of rotation of driving wheels.

The regulator of idling supports idling turns within 820–880 min. –1 irrespective of load of the engine (in particular, at inclusion and switching off of powerful consumers of the electric power). It represents the step electric motor with the micrometric screw. At the movement of the screw the section of the perepuskny air channel between an inlet branch pipe and a receiver changes (bypassing a butterfly valve). The faulty regulator is recommended to be replaced with service stations where there is a device allowing to operate it (sometimes at installation the vystupaniye of the screw of the regulator is required to be reduced).

The system of ignition enters a control system of the engine. It consists of the module of ignition, high-voltage wires and spark plugs. At operation the system does not demand service and adjustment. The module of ignition is installed on the arm fixed on three hairpins in the left forward part of the engine. It includes two managing directors electronic the block and two high-voltage transformers (the ignition coil). To conclusions of high-voltage windings of transformers candle wires – to the one 1st and 4th cylinders, are connected to another – the 2nd and 3rd. Thus, the spark at the same time slips in two cylinders (1-4 or 2-3) – in one during a compression step (a working spark), in another – during release (single). The ignition module – non-demountable, at failure it is replaced.

Spark plugs – A17DVRM or their analogs, with the pomekhopodavitelny resistor with a resistance of 4-10 kOhm and the copper core. A gap between electrodes – 1,00–1,13 mm.

Four safety locks and three relays of a control system of the engine (the main thing, an electrogasoline pump and electric fans of the cooling system of the engine) are in salon under the dashboard on the left side. Power contacts of all relays become isolated according to commands of the controller. Three safety locks on 15 A protect a chain of a continuous power of the control unit, the main relay and its chains, power contacts of the relay of an electrogasoline pump and its chain. The safety lock on 30 A protects power contacts the relay and a power-supply circuit of electric fans of the cooling system of the engine. Except safety locks, the fusible insert is provided in a power-supply circuit of a control system of the engine (from the plus plug of the rechargeable battery to the block of safety locks of a control system). It is in a motor compartment and is executed in the form of a piece of a black wire with a section of 1 mm 2 (section of the main wire – 6 mm 2).