2.5. Diagnostics of malfunctions of cardan transfer, forward and back bridges, running gear, steering and brake system

(Malfunctions of other systems are also mentioned in this section, they are designated by a symbol •)

Cause of defect

Elimination method

Knock at start-off

Fastening of the elastic coupling to its flange on secondary to a shaft of the transmission and/or a flange of an intermediate shaft to a flange of the leading shaft of the transfer case weakened

Tighten fastenings, check centering of the transfer case concerning the transmission (see. Transfer case)

Fastening of flanges of driveshafts to flanges of the transfer case and/or reducers of bridges weakened

Tighten the fastenings which are worn out самоконтрящиеся nuts replace

Wear of shlitsevy connection of the driveshaft with its flange or cardan hinges (klatsaniye)

Proshpritsuyte shlitsevy connections by SHRUS-4, Fiol-1 or Litol-24 lubricant. Replace worn-out cardan hinges or the driveshaft assembled

The gap in gearing of gear wheels of the main transfer is big, their teeths are worn-out

Adjust a side gap in gearing of gear wheels. Replace worn-out gear wheels

The gap in gearing of gear wheels of the main transfer because of a shaft nut otvorachivaniye is broken

Tighten a nut the recommended moment, if necessary install the new expansion plug

The break of bars of a back suspension bracket or arms of their fastening, are destroyed saylent-blocks

Replace bars, weld arms

Wheel nuts weakened

Tighten nuts the recommended moment

Brake shoes stuck or froze to a drum

Is not malfunction. Do not use "bench hammer" at the long parking of the car, especially in the winter

Peeling of a brake slip from the block basis

Replace a block (better at the same time everything on one axis)

Breakage of a spring of a suspension bracket

Replace a spring (better to change at once both springs of a suspension bracket – left and right)

• Coupling is faulty

See Diagnostics of malfunctions of coupling

• Lost elasticity or support of the power unit collapsed or their fastening weakened

Replace support, tighten fastenings

Noise at movement of the car along the flat highway

Bearings of a reducer of the forward or back bridge are worn-out, their pretightness is broken, landing weakened (uniform noise from the side of the bridge)

Replace worn-out bearings, the expansion plug, adjust a pretightness (see. Zadny Bridge)

Teeths of gear wheels of the main transfer are worn-out, the side gap in gearing, teases on teeths is broken: howl from the forward or back bridge, decreasing or disappearing at decrease in loading (at an otpuskaniye of a pedal of "gas")

Replace worn-out gear wheels, adjust a side gap

Fastening of the conducted gear wheel to a differential box (a gear wheel beating) weakened

Tighten threaded connections (it is possible to use sealant for carvings), replace worn-out gear wheels (couple)

Wear of bearings of half shafts or bearings of naves of forward wheels

Replace bearings

Driveshaft imbalance

Check, whether on the place lock rings of bearings of crosspieces. Balance cardan transfer on HUNDRED or replace

Tires are not intended for these service conditions (on asphalt snow tires, antisliding chains, etc. are used)

Use tires according to their appointment

High speed in turns

Reduce speed before turn. Adjust the angles of installation of forward wheels, pressure in tires

Uneven wear or peeling of a protector, deformation of the tire, rim

Replace a wheel

The wheel touches the flap or a wheel arch (especially on the loaded car)

Check and adjust the angles of installation of wheels, replace the deformed suspension bracket details which sank springs. Do not overload the car. Use only regular rims

Details of brake mechanisms touch a brake disk / reel

Sort knot, replace defective parts

Nuts of fastening of a wheel weakened

Tighten nuts, at deformation of a rim – replace a disk

Peeling of a brake slip from the block basis

Replace a block (better at the same time everything on one axis)

• Malfunctions of the engine, coupling, transmission

See appropriate sections of "Diagnostics"

• Howl, whistle from a luggage carrier (freight) on a roof

Reduce speed

Knocks, scratches at the movement on off road terrain

The car is overloaded

Do not overload the car. Distribute freight evenly (use salon)

Shock-absorbers are faulty, their fastenings weakened, rubber pillows wore out

Replace the shock-absorber (better at the same time both on one axis), rubber pillows

Destruction of the buffer of a suspension bracket (forward or back) or additional top buffer (back)

Replace buffers / buffers

Draft or breakage of a spring of a suspension bracket

Replace a spring (better to change at once both springs – left and right)

The break of bars of a back suspension bracket or arms of their fastening, are destroyed saylent-blocks

Replace bars, weld arms

The final system is incorrectly mounted or deformed

Replace final system or change the provision of its details (taking into account the suspension bracket course)

Spherical support of a forward suspension bracket are worn out or are not greased

Having hung out forward wheels, be convinced of free movement of spherical fingers. Put fresh ShRB-4 lubricant in covers

Saylent-blocks of a forward suspension bracket are worn-out or destroyed

Replace saylent-blocks

Fastening of an axis of the lower and/or top levers weakened

Tighten threaded connections

Fastening of a cross-piece of a forward suspension bracket to body longerons weakened

Tighten threaded connections

Fastening of a steering wheel on a shaft, a steering column to an arm, a case of the steering mechanism and an arm of the pendular lever to body longerons weakened

Tighten threaded connections

Knock in the steering mechanism: strong wear or destruction of working surfaces of a worm and a roller, plugs of the pendular lever, is not adjusted a gap in gearing, there is no oil in a case of the steering mechanism

Replace worn-out knot, adjust a gap in gearing of a roller and a worm, add oil

Suspension bracket elements (levers, stabilizer bar), steering drafts are bent. Fastening of details of a suspension bracket weakened

Correct the deformed details or replace. Tighten threaded connections

Rubber pillows of fastening of final system, collar of fastening of an exhaust pipe to an arm on the transmission are torn off or lost

Establish new pillows, a collar

• Lost elasticity or support of the power unit collapsed

Replace support

Fastening of a half shaft and brake board to a beam of the back bridge weakened

Tighten threaded connections

Pressure in tires is big

Establish normal pressure

Noise, scratch, clicks from the back bridge at turns of the car or at pro-slipping of one of wheels

Nuts of fastening of a wheel weakened

Tighten nuts, at deformation of a rim – replace a disk

Teeths of satellites or semi-axial gear wheels are worn-out or painted

Replace the worn-out or broken details

Hard rotation of satellites on an axis or the axis in the differential case

And in openings of satellites smooth out agnails on an axis a file, replace the worn-out and deformed details

Wear of a spherical (internal) surface of the case of differential

Replace the case of differential or differential assembled

Jamming of semi-axial gear wheels in the differential case

Replace the worn-out and deformed details. Establish by selection of basic washers an axial gap of gear wheels of 0-0,10 mm, controlling the moment of resistance to rotation (see. Transfer case)

Big axial gap of gear wheels of drives of bridges in the differential case

Establish by selection of adjusting laying an axial gap of gear wheels of 0-0,10 mm, controlling the moment of resistance to rotation (see. Transfer case)

Wear of the bearing of a half shaft

Replace a half shaft

Breakage of a spring of a suspension bracket

Replace a spring (better to change at once both springs of a suspension bracket – left and right)

The break of bars of a back suspension bracket or arms of their fastening, are destroyed saylent-blocks

Replace bars, weld arms

Noise, scratch, clicks from the forward bridge at turns of the car or at pro-slipping of one of wheels

Nuts of fastening of a wheel weakened

Tighten nuts, at deformation of a rim – replace a disk

Wear external (is more rare – internal) the hinge

Replace the hinge

Deformation of a shaft of the drive of forward wheels

Replace a shaft or the drive assembled

The raised axial side play of a wheel (strong wear of bearings of forward wheels or weakening of a nut of a nave)

Tighten a wheel nave nut, if necessary replace bearings

The wheel touches the flap (especially on the loaded car)

Check and adjust the angles of installation of wheels, replace the deformed suspension bracket details which sank springs. Do not overload the car. Use only regular rims

Breakage of a spring of a suspension bracket

Replace a spring (better to change at once both springs of a suspension bracket – left and right)

Spherical support of a forward suspension bracket are worn out or are not greased

Having hung out forward wheels, be convinced of free movement of spherical fingers. Put fresh ShRB-4 lubricant in covers

Saylent-blocks of a forward suspension bracket are worn-out or destroyed

Replace saylent-blocks

Fastening of an axis of the lower and/or top levers weakened

Tighten threaded connections

Fastening of a cross-piece of a forward suspension bracket to body longerons weakened

Tighten threaded connections

Fastening of a steering column to an arm, a case of the steering mechanism and an arm of the pendular lever to body longerons weakened

Tighten threaded connections

Knock in the steering mechanism: strong wear or destruction of working surfaces of a worm and a roller, bipod shaft plugs, is not adjusted a gap in gearing, there is no oil in a case of the steering mechanism

Replace worn-out knot, adjust a gap in gearing of a roller and a worm, add oil

Suspension bracket elements (levers, stabilizer bar), steering drafts are bent

Replace the deformed details

Vibration at the movement of the car

• Vibration from a floor around front seats

See Diagnostics of malfunctions of the transfer case and an intermediate shaft

• Vibration from the power unit

See. "Strong vibration of the engine" in the section Diagnostics of Malfunctions of the Engine

The increased imbalance of forward wheels, deformation of the tire or its uneven wear, deformation of a rim (the steering wheel "beats")

Balance the wheels deformed or with uneven wear of the tire, - replace the deformed rims

Strong imbalance of back wheels, deformation of the tire or its uneven wear, deformation of a rim (vibration of a back of the car)

Balance the wheels deformed or with uneven wear of the tire, - replace the deformed rims

Deformation of driveshafts / shaft, loss of balancing small weights (plates)

Repair cardan transfer on HUNDRED with the subsequent dynamic balancing or replace

Big side play of a crosspiece in the cardan hinge, loss of a lock ring from a hinge fork

Check existence of lock rings in pro-points of forks, axial movement of a crosspiece. Adjust a side play, replace worn-out details

Fastening of flanges of cardan transfer weakened

Tighten threaded connections

Tires are not intended for these service conditions (on the highway snow tires, antisliding chains, etc. are used)

Use tires according to their appointment

Uneven wear or peeling of a protector, deformation of the tire, rim

Replace a wheel

Rocking of the car on the road

The shock-absorber is faulty

Replace the shock-absorber (better at the same time both on one axis)

Vibration when braking

Deformation of a brake disk: the beating it on edge exceeds 0,15 mm

Replace a disk (better with couple)

The raised axial side play of a wheel (strong wear of bearings of forward wheels or weakening of a nut of a nave)

Tighten a wheel nave nut, if necessary replace bearings

Ovality of the brake drum

Pierce or replace a drum

The piston in the back wheel cylinder is jammed

Replace the cylinder

The overlay of a brake shoe exfoliated from the basis

Replace a block (better at the same time everything on one axis)

The coupling spring of back brake shoes weakened or is broken

Replace a spring

Scratch, squeal when braking

Extreme wear of brake slips

Replace brake shoes (better at the same time everything on one axis)

Inclusion in material of an overlay of foreign debris (sand)

As a rule, does not demand intervention (it is possible to clear slips a metal brush)

Poor quality of material of a slip

Replace a block (better at the same time everything on one axis)

Jamming of the piston of the forward brake mechanism or guide of a support

Replace the block of cylinders assembled, clear of dirt and grease with graphitic lubricant support guides

Strong corrosion of a brake disk

(Pierce) Proshlifuyte or replace a disk

The overlay of a brake shoe exfoliated from the basis

Replace a block (better at the same time everything on one axis)

The coupling spring of back brake shoes weakened or is broken

Replace a spring

Braking with blocking of wheels

Not to peretormazhivayta, use the tires corresponding to traffic conditions

The increased brake pedal course (the pedal "soft" or "fails")

Air in the brake system, leak of brake fluid through thinnesses of connections of a hydraulic actuator, damage of cuffs to the main brake cylinder, pressure regulator, damage of brake tubes and hoses

Examine all highways, their threaded connections and cylinders, eliminate leakage. Restore the normal level of liquid in a brake tank and pump over system. At detection of damages of brake hoses (cracks, swellings or traces of brake fluid) – replace hoses. At suspicion on defects of the main brake cylinder replace it with obviously serviceable

Rubber cuffs of cylinders because of hit in brake fluid of oil, gasoline, etc. inflated.

Replace cylinders, hoses, having completely merged brake fluid; wash out system fresh liquid and pump over

Overheat of brake mechanisms

Let's cool down to brakes. Check thickness of slips and brake disks. Apply only brake fluids recommended by manufacturer in system. In time replace brake fluid

The gap between blocks and a drum is increased (the device of automatic control of a gap does not work)

Replace the wheel cylinder, pump over system

Raised (more than 0,15 mm on edge) a beating of a brake disk

Replace a disk

One of contours of the working brake system does not work

Eliminate leak of liquid from the brake system, pump over system

The brake pedal course within norm (a pedal "rigid"), but stops the car badly

Oiling of brake disks, drums, slips

Clear greasy disks and drums, replace blocks (as a last resort grind off on a sandpaper). It is strictly forbidden to clear blocks solvents! Remove the cause of oiling (replace a half shaft epiploon)

On a surface of slips the ice or salt crust was formed (winter); slips became wet

In a start of motion, at a small speed check brakes. During a rain and after journey of deep pools dry brakes easy pressing a brake pedal

Poor quality of material of slips

Replace blocks (better at the same time everything on one axis)

Obstruction of brake highways: tubes (because of dents) or hoses (because of swelling or stratification of rubber)

Replace the damaged tubes and hoses

Jamming of the piston in the cylinder, blocks in a support

Replace the cylinder, clear the contacting surfaces of blocks and a support, before installation grease them with SHRUS-4 or graphitic lubricant

Wear-out of brake slips (gnash of brakes)

Replace brake shoes (better at the same time everything on one axis)

The overlay of a brake shoe exfoliated from the basis

Replace a block (better at the same time everything on one axis)

Pressure regulator drive is incorrectly adjusted

Adjust the drive (see. Brake system)

Pressure regulator is faulty

Replace the regulator

The vacuum amplifier is faulty or the hose, the connecting amplifier with an inlet pipe or a receiver is untight

To check integrity of a hose, its landing on unions, an inhaling of collars. For check of the amplifier: kill the engine, press 5-8 times a pedal of a brake and, holding a pedal of pressed, start the engine. At the serviceable amplifier after launch of the engine the pedal has to "leave" noticeably forward. The faulty amplifier replace

Incomplete disinhibition of all wheels

The wrong provision of an adjusting bolt concerning a cover of the vacuum amplifier

The end face of a bolt has to act concerning a cover end face on 1,25-0,2 mm

Rubber cuffs of cylinders because of hit in brake fluid of oil, gasoline, etc. inflated.

Replace cylinders, hoses, completely merge brake fluid, wash out system fresh liquid and pump over

Jammed the piston of the main cylinder (because of corrosion, breakage of returnable springs, hit in liquid of mechanical impurity)

Replace the main cylinder, pump over system

Jamming of a pedal of a brake: the returnable spring is broken or was extended, are strongly worn-out, pedal plugs, corrosion of an axis are not greased

Replace a defective spring, plugs, put in them fresh Litol-24 lubricant, Fiol-1U

Snubbing of one of wheels at the released brake pedal

Jamming of the piston of the wheel cylinder

Replace the block of cylinders (the back cylinder)

Rubber cuffs of cylinders because of hit in brake fluid of oil, gasoline, etc. inflated.

Replace cylinders, hoses, completely merge brake fluid, wash out system fresh liquid and pump over

Obstruction of brake highways: tubes (because of dents) or hoses (because of swelling or stratification of rubber)

Replace the damaged tubes and hoses

Peeling of an overlay of a back brake shoe

Replace a block (better at the same time everything on one axis)

The coupling spring of back brake shoes weakened or is broken

Replace a spring

Deformation of an expansion level, distortion of blocks because of deformation of brake boards

Correct or replace an expansion level, brake boards

The parking brake is drawn, cables are jammed in covers

Adjust a tension of cables, oil them engine if the cover is damaged or cable delays are disheveled, and also at strong corrosion – replace them

Badly holds the parking brake

Wrong adjustment of the drive

Adjust the drive

The cable of the drive is jammed in covers

Oil a cable engine if the cover is damaged or cable delays are disheveled, and also at strong corrosion – replace them

Returnable springs of branches of a cable are compressed against the stop

Accurately cut off 6-8 rounds of a spring (do not damage a cable!). At strong wear of back brake shoes replace blocks

Brake drums, slips are greasy

Clear greasy disks and drums, replace blocks (as a last resort grind off on a sandpaper). It is strictly forbidden to clear blocks solvents! Remove the cause of oiling (replace a half shaft epiploon)

On a surface of slips the ice or salt crust was formed (winter); slips became wet

In a start of motion, at a small speed check brakes. During a rain and after journey of deep pools dry brakes easy pressing a brake pedal

Wear-out of brake slips (gnash of brakes)

Replace brake shoes (better at the same time everything on one axis)

At an otpuskaniye of the lever of the parking brake of a wheel do not rastormazhivatsya

After the long parking of the car of a block stuck (or froze) to a drum

Pulling the lever or a cable, try to turn a wheel carefully (not to break brake slips). Check ease of movement of a cable in covers, pistons in wheel cylinders, rigidity of returnable springs of a cable of the parking brake and coupling springs of blocks. At statement of the car on the parking whenever possible do not tighten a brake, and include transfer

Wrong adjustment of the drive

Adjust the drive

The cable of the drive is jammed in covers

Oil a cable engine if the cover is damaged or cable delays are disheveled, and also at strong corrosion – replace them

Withdrawal of the car from the rectilinear movement (on the flat road)

Unequal pressure of air in tires

Establish normal pressure

Violation of angles of installation of forward wheels

Adjust corners

Considerable difference in wear of tires

Replace the worn-out tire

Unequal draft or breakage of springs of a suspension bracket

Replace both springs

Details of a suspension bracket and/or body of the car are deformed

Correct or replace the deformed body details

Shift of a back axis because of break of bars or arms of their fastening

Replace bars, weld arms

Podtormazhivany wheels because of jamming of the piston of the wheel cylinder

Replace the block of cylinders (the back cylinder)

Podtormazhivany a back wheel because of easing or breakage of a coupling spring of back brake shoes

Replace a spring

Obstruction of brake highways: tubes (because of dents) or hoses (because of swelling or stratification of rubber)

Replace the damaged tubes and hoses

Withdrawal or drift of the car when braking

Jamming of the piston of the wheel cylinder

Replace the block of cylinders (the back cylinder)

Obstruction of brake highways: tubes (because of dents) or hoses (because of swelling or stratification of rubber)

Replace the damaged tubes and hoses

Jamming of a wheel because of peeling of a slip from the basis of a brake shoe

Replace a block (better at the same time everything on one axis)

Oiling of brake disks, drums, slips

Clear greasy disks and drums, replace blocks (as a last resort grind off on a sandpaper). It is strictly forbidden to clear blocks solvents! Remove the cause of oiling (replace a half shaft epiploon)

On a surface of slips the ice or salt crust was formed (winter); slips became wet

In a start of motion, at a small speed check brakes. During a rain and after journey of deep pools dry brakes easy pressing a brake pedal

Deformation of a brake disk: its beating on edge exceeds 0,15 mm

Replace a disk (better with couple)

Ovality of the brake drum

Pierce or replace a drum

Different pressure in tires of the left and right wheels

Establish normal pressure

Considerable difference in wear of tires

Replace the worn-out tire

Unequal draft of springs of a forward suspension bracket

Replace both springs

The angles of installation of wheels are broken

Adjust the angles of installation of wheels

Bystry wear of a protector of tires

Pressure in tires differs from norm

Establish normal pressure

The angles of installation of forward wheels are broken

Adjust the angles of installation of wheels

High speed of the movement, start-off from the place with pro-slipping of wheels, braking "on a skid", passing of turns with a drift or demolition of wheels

Change style of driving. Check pressure in tires, the angles of installation of wheels, a condition of details of suspension brackets more often

The raised axial side play of a wheel (strong wear of bearings of forward wheels or weakening of fastening of a nut of a nave)

Tighten a wheel nave nut, if necessary replace the bearing

Hit on a protector of materials, aggressive in relation to rubber, – bitumen, oil, gasoline, solvents, acids, etc.

Replace the tire

Car overload

Do not overload the car

Uneven wear of a protector of tires

The raised imbalance of wheels

Balance wheels

Deformation of the tire, rim

Replace a wheel

Different pressure in tires

Establish normal pressure

The angles of installation of forward wheels are broken

Adjust the angles of installation of wheels

High speed of the movement in turns, their passing with a drift or demolition of wheels

Change style of driving. Check pressure in tires, the angles of installation of wheels, a condition of details of suspension brackets more often

The raised axial side play of a wheel (strong wear of bearings of forward wheels or weakening of fastening of a nut of a nave)

Tighten a wheel nave nut, if necessary replace the bearing

Wear of hinges, deformation of details of a suspension bracket or body

Replace hinges, correct or replace the deformed suspension bracket details, longerons, body panels

Side play in steering (see also "The increased free wheeling of a steering wheel")

Replace worn-out hinges, tighten threaded connections, adjust a gap between a gear wheel and a lath in the steering mechanism

The increased free wheeling of a steering wheel

The gap between a worm and a roller in the steering mechanism is big

Adjust a gap, at impossibility of adjustment replace the steering mechanism

Plugs of the pendular lever are worn-out

Replace plugs or the pendular lever

Hinges of steering drafts are worn-out

Replace drafts

Fastenings of a case of the steering mechanism and/or arm of the pendular lever to longerons of a body, a crack in a longeron weakened

Tighten fastenings, repair or replace the burst longeron

The steering wheel rotates hardly

Gaps in the steering mechanism are not adjusted

Adjust gaps

Zaboina on surfaces, deformation of a worm and/or a roller of the steering mechanism

Replace the steering mechanism

Too strong inhaling of plugs of the pendular lever, lack of lubricant

Adjust a nut inhaling, grease Litol-24 plugs and put lubricant in a cavity between them. For check of effort of an inhaling of a nut it is necessary to remove an arm of the pendular lever from the car. The lever has to rotate at the annex to its end of load of 1-2 kgfs and should not be turned under the influence of a body weight

Fingers of steering drafts are jammed

Replace drafts

The angles of installation of forward wheels are broken

Adjust corners

Emergency (wide) tires, wheels with a departure (ET) differing from recommended are installed

Use the wheels and tires recommended by manufacturer

Low pressure in tires of forward wheels

Establish normal pressure

Small выбег car

Snubbing of one or several wheels

See. "An incomplete disinhibition of all wheels", "Snubbing of one of wheels at the released brake pedal"

The angles of installation of forward wheels are broken

Adjust the angles of installation of wheels

Low pressure of air in tires

Establish normal pressure

In the transmission, the transfer case, reducers of bridges oil of inappropriate viscosity is filled in

Replace oil on recommended in the maintenance instruction

Leak of oil from bridges

Epiploons are damaged or worn-out

Replace epiploons

Teases, risks on surfaces of shaft on which epiploons, a beating of shaft work

You zapilit small damages a file and a zapoliruyta. A new epiploon is possible a little (to 1 mm) to nedopressovat (having enclosed if necessary remote laying) that its edge worked by not worn-out part of a shaft. Replace the deformed details

Elevated pressure in a case because of a contamination of a sapun

Clean or replace сапун

Traffic jams are leaky wrapped, laying is damaged

Tighten traffic jams, replace the damaged laying or put on sealant

On a cover of the hinge and/or to a shaft of the drive of forward wheels lubricant traces are visible

The protective cover of the hinge is damaged, its collars weakened

Examine the hinge, in the presence of a side play – replace. If there is no side play, and it is a little dirt in lubricant, without disassembling the hinge, remove with the screw-driver as much as possible lubricant and put new (SHRUS-4). Replace the damaged cover, tighten (replace) collars

On the shlitsevy end of the driveshaft lubricant traces are visible

The holder of an epiploon of shlitsevy connection of the driveshaft weakened (its petals were unbent)

Turn in petals of a holder or replace it, a proshpritsuyta connection with Fiol-1 lubricant, Fiol-2U or SHRUS-4

On the cardan hinge lubricant traces are visible

Epiploons of bearings of the cardan hinge are worn-out or damaged

Replace an epiploon or the cardan hinge assembled. At assembly in the hinge put Fiol-1 lubricant or Fiol-2U

On the shock-absorber are visible begin to flow damping liquid

Leak of liquid from the shock-absorber (because of wear of an epiploon of a rod, a sealing ring of the tank, забоин and damages of a chromic covering of a rod)

Insignificant "otpotevaniye" of the shock-absorber in the top part (if there are no potek) when saving its characteristics is not malfunction. It is possible to check shock-absorbers at the special stand or – it is rough – having shaken the car for a wing. No more than 1-2 damped oscillations of the car are allowed. At considerable leak of liquid and/or at efficiency loss (rocking of the car on the road) replace the shock-absorber