19.1. Features of a design

Steering – with mechanical communication, without amplifier. The steering mechanism – "a globoidalny worm – dvukhgrebnevy a roller", transfer number of a reducer – 16,4.

The steering trapeze is formed by three steering drafts (one average and two side), a bipod, the pendular lever and levers of rotary fists. Side drafts consist of two tips connected by the carving cutting coupling. On an internal (short) tip – the right carving, on external – left. On the connecting coupling a carving of also different direction therefore at its turning length of side draft can increase or decrease that is necessary for adjustment of a convergence of wheels. The coupling is fixed on tips by coupling collars.

On the ends of steering drafts there are spherical hinges. Their fingers have conical landing in levers and are recorded in them by nuts with forelocks. The spherical head of a finger rotates in the plastic insert which is drawn in by a spring to the hinge case. The spring rests other end against a steel cap, zavaltsovanny against the hinge case. Thanks to conicity of an external surface of an insert and internal surface of the case of the hinge at preload of an insert the side play between an insert and a spherical head of a finger is chosen.

To be convinced that the insert is not jammed in the case, a hand or an assembly shovel press the hinge case in the direction of a finger – at the same time the finger has to leave in the case on 0,5–1,5 mm. When jamming the hinge or a notable side play in it replace steering draft (steering rod end). The hinge is protected from moisture and dirt by a rubber cover, napressovanny on the case. At damage of a cover immediately replace it, having removed old lubricant from the surface of the hinge and having added new (ShRB-4).

The arm of the pendular lever is attached to the right longeron by two bolts with самоконтрящимися nuts. The arm case – cast, from aluminum alloy. In it two plastic plugs in which the axis of the pendular lever rotates are installed. From above and from below washers which draw in plugs to the arm case are put on an axis. The lower washer rests against the pendular lever fixed on an axis самоконтрящейся by a nut, top – in a nut with the forelock. This nut is tightened on the removed arm so that the pendular lever was not turned under a body weight, and only under load of 1-2 kgfs. On the working surfaces of plugs and in space between an axis and the case put Litol-24 lubricant. For protection against dirt two rubber sealing rings established between washers and the case of the lever serve. At wear of plugs they are replaced, at wear of the case or an axis replace an arm.

The steering mechanism is attached by three bolts with самоконтрящимися nuts to the left longeron. Its case – cast, from aluminum alloy. In its lower (extended) part two bronze plugs in which the shaft of a steering bipod rotates are pressed. On the lower shlitsevy end of a shaft the nut fixed a steering bipod (it is established on a shaft only in a certain situation). On the top part of a shaft inflow with a cut is executed; in it the roller rotating in ball or needle bearings is located dvukhgrebnevy. The screw head which regulates a gap between a roller and a worm (see below) enters the T-shaped groove at the top end face of a shaft. The axial side play of a head in a groove should not exceed 0,05 mm; it is reached by selection of thickness of the adjusting plate which is put on the screw. The screw moves on a carving in a cover of the steering mechanism and is stopped by a nut and a figured washer.

The worm of the steering mechanism rotates in two ball radial-stop bearings in which gap is regulated by selection of laying between the case and the lower cover (at the same time from the mechanism oil pours out, upon termination of adjustment its level needs to be restored). At correctly adjusted gap the moment of a provorachivaniye of a shaft of a worm (with the removed bipod shaft) has to be within 20–49 N. see. If it is less, reduce thickness of a package of laying if more – increase. After installation of a shaft of a bipod regulate a gap in gearing of a roller with a worm: the moment of resistance to a provorachivaniye of a shaft of a worm at turn on 30 ° to the right-to the left from average situation has to be 88–118 N. in cm, and at big corners – no more than 69 N. in cm. In practice the elementary control consists in the following: on the removed steering mechanism the shaft of a worm has to be turned by hand with noticeable increase of effort near average situation, the axial side play of a shaft should not be.

For filling of oil the opening closed by a carving stopper is provided in a case of the steering mechanism in the top cover. Gearbox oil is filled in to an edge of this opening (0,215 l), on it control level. Leak of oil is possible from under the lower cover of the bearing of a shaft of a worm (because of its deformation) or through omental consolidations of shaft of a bipod and a worm. Repair of a reducer in house conditions (except for adjustment of gaps and replacement of epiploons) is not recommended.

The steering shaft – two-unit, consists of the top and intermediate shaft. The top shaft rotates in two bearings with rubber plugs, zavaltsovanny in a shaft arm pipe. In the lower part the ring with a groove which the locking crossbar of the anti-theft device enters is welded on a shaft. On the top shlitsevy end of a shaft the steering wheel, a nut of its fastening of a zakernen is fixed.

The intermediate shaft has on the ends cardan hinges with the cutting shlitsevy tips which are pulled together by bolts; lower is connected to shaft of a worm, top - to the top steering shaft.

Injury prevention of steering is provided with folding of a steering shaft at the expense of cardan hinges and special fastening of an arm of a steering shaft. The last is attached to a body arm in four points: from above – on welded bolts with nuts and washers, from below – special detachable bolts with the fixing plates. At collision of edge of the fixing plates are deformed and slip through rectangular openings of an arm of a steering shaft. At the same time due to folding of a steering shaft the steering wheel moves not back, and up and forward, reducing probability of injuries of thorax of the driver.