14.1. Features of a design

The torque from the transfer case to forward and back reducers is transferred by driveshafts. Forward and back driveshafts identical on a design also differ with only length (forward well).

The driveshaft represents a thin-walled steel pipe on which on the one hand the tip is welded shlitsevy, and with another – a fork of the cardan hinge. On shlitsevy a tip the sliding fork of the second hinge is put on. Shlitsevy connection is condensed with the epiploon which is drawn in by a holder, and in an opening in the sliding fork from the cardan hinge the steel cap is pressed. Both hinges are connected to flanges, one of which (from the sliding fork) the shaft fastens to a flange of the transfer case, and another (from the welded fork) — to a reducer flange. The driveshaft assembled with flanges dynamically balance at special stands; the imbalance is counterbalanced with a privarivaniye of balancing plates to a shaft pipe. At a rassoyedineniye of parts of the driveshaft it should be noted (paint or a core) their relative positioning that at assembly to establish on the places. The driveshaft needs to be balanced anew (or to replace) at loss of balancing plates, deformation (at first it govern), replacement of details of cardan transfer (the sliding fork, a flange, a crosspiece with bearings). However if when replacing a crosspiece it was not required to select new lock rings (the sizes of new and old coincide), then, as a rule, it is possible to do also without balancing. The imbalance of cardan transfer leads to noticeable vibrations at high speeds (higher than 60-80 km/h). The strong imbalance can cause destruction of cardan transfer and the next units.

The cardan hinge consists of two forks connected among themselves by a crosspiece. The crosspiece has four thorns which cases of bearings with needles (thin rollers) are put on. For protection against dirt the bearing is condensed with an epiploon. Since 1988 the design of hinges is changed. Diameter of thorns of a crosspiece and bearings is increased, and the last became stamped (were fine-molded earlier). Respectively the size of forks and openings in them changed. Therefore separate parts of cardan transfer of a new and old sample are not interchanged, but shaft can be replaced assembled. Besides, the epiploon design is changed: one more working edge is added that allowed to condense the bearing both in radial, and in the face direction. For reduction of friction between the case of the bearing and an end face of a thorn of a crosspiece the plastic washer is established; in the place of contact there is no high temperature and lubricant does not "cook". On a surface of the washer turned to a crosspiece thorn, flutes from the center to the periphery for a lubricant supply are executed from a thorn cavity to bearing needles. For replenishment of lubricant press butterdishes are installed in hinges and in the sliding fork. For lubricant of hinges Fiol-2U or lubricant No. 158, for shlitsevy connection – Fiol-2U or Fiol-1 is used.

Due to the change of a design of the hinge the order of its dismantle (see Dismantling of the cardan hinge) and selection of lock rings changed. Lock rings are delivered eight sizes, different color depending on thickness: 1,45 mm – unpainted, 1,48 mm – yellow, 1,52 mm – brown, 1,56 mm – blue, 1,60 mm – black, and also 1,40 mm and 1,67 mm not marked (thickness is controlled by measurement). When replacing the hinge it is recommended to note the provision of lock rings and to establish them on former places.

After a bearing press fitting (the effort is not higher than 1500 kgfs) rings have to enter densely a gap between an end face of a pro-point of a fork and a bottom of the bearing. If old rings do not enter a gap or enter not densely, we select new as it is described above (if rings of smaller thickness are necessary, it is possible to soshlifovat accurately old). After installation of rings we strike hinge forks with the hammer with plastic brisk (or usual through a wooden pro-rate) that cases of bearings densely nestled on lock rings (we check whether rings were clamped), and in bearings the axial gap of 0,01-0,04 mm appeared. Correctly assembled bearing should not have a notable side play (the gap is very small and besides, the case of the bearing is drawn in by an epiploon) and at the same time has to rotate easily and without jamming.